SEO Expert Guide – Free Site Promotion (PR) (part 6/10)

In parts 1 – 5 you learnt how to develop your proposition, identify your key words and optimize your site and pages. You were also introduced to our mythical Doug (who sells antique doors, door handles, knockers, door bells or pulls and fitting services) in Windsor in the UK.

Now we turn our attention to site promotion, starting with free techniques. In marketing parlance, we are talking about PR here. My key message is that free publicity opportunities abound on the web, but that people tend to invest their time in the wrong areas!

If people spent even half the time they generally spend on reciprocal link requests and invested it evenly across all the other tips and tricks I am going to tell you about, they would do much better!

(a) Google PageRank

Much has been written – and obsessed about – PageRank (a ranking given by Google to web pages on a scale from 0 to 10). To find out the PageRank of any site, the best way is to download the Google Toolbar or use the Top25Web Google PageRank Calculator.

What you need to remember – above all else – is that PageRank is only relevant in ordering search results, where sites have a similar search relevancy for the words searched upon. In other words, PageRank is only likely to be (very) important to you if you are seeking to enter a very crowded marketplace (eg. real estate) where there are already hundreds of established, optimized sites.

Google explain Pagerank as relying on “the uniquely democratic nature of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page’s value. In essence, Google interprets a link from page A to page B as a vote, by page A, for page B”.

So, to increase Google PageRank, one needs to get links from other sites to yours – and lots of them. Also, links from sites with higher PageRanks are worth more than ones with little or no PageRank. As an example, just one link from a PR10 webpage (if it’s the only link on that page) would be enough to earn your linked page a PR8, but you might need nearly 350,000 links from PR3 pages to achieve the same result!

(b) Inbound links

I hope my point on PageRank has not been lost on you! You will have to work very hard indeed to get your PageRank up to a decent level. Investing your time wisely is most important, or you could spend the rest of your natural life getting nowhere fast!

You should only really seek inbound links from pages ranked 6 or better (as then the odds become playable and worth the effort). Just beware that (as loads of other people know this too) your average PR6 website owner gets inundated with polite linking requests.

Also be aware that PageRank works in reverse too for outbound links (see below). If a PR6 site links to a PR0 site (such as your new one) it will dilute slightly it’s own PageRank. Now who is going to do that just to help you out?

If you must send out reciprocal link requests to other sites, there is a protocol to observe. Firstly, you should only seek links with related sites as anything else amounts to unethical behaviour. Secondly, put a link to their site on your own site first. Thirdly, send a polite note to the webmaster of that site, pointing out what you have done and inviting her to reciprocate. If the email address of the webmaster isn’t obvious from the site, look up the technical contact from the site’s domain name record (which you can bring up at Domain Search).

Be specifc about what link – and key word rich link text – you would like them to use and send them the HTML code ready-made, so they don’t have to think too much!

Just take my advice though; this is likely to be a largely fruitless and very time-consuming activity. You are far better off focusing your efforts on getting a few key links from a very small number of key site types, which I outline below.

(c) Directory Submission

Web directories are a brave attempt to create a human-maintained taxonomy of the entire web. Such sites are given much authority by the search engines, with a PR8 for the Open Directory Project (DMOZ) and for Looksmart, and PR10 for Yahoo Directory.

As directories are in the business of giving sites like yours outbound links, they would seem a good place for you to start your promotional activities! Directories like DMOZ also sell their results to hundreds of other sites (including Google) so one link can quickly become several hundred!

Firstly, you should create a summary description of the site in less than 30 words. This should be similar to what you came up with for your Meta-description tag (see part 5) and loaded with the right keywords. My advice is to create a very slightly different version for each directory submission you make (so that you can later track the effectiveness of each submission, when they show up search engines fed by that directory). Doug opts for:

“ – Antique doors and door fitting from Doug Chalmers of Middlesex, UK. Old door knockers, door bells and other door hardware in brass and iron, shipped worldwide.”

Secondly, you should research the various topic categories to find the most appropriate area to submit to. Do a search on your top four keywords – and on your competitors’ URLs – at the top directories. Make a list of the most popular categories returned. In chosing between the categories, take two things into account; (a) is the category actively maintained by an editor (better if it is) and (b) is your site targeted at a specific regional market (in which case you should favour a regional category).

Thirdly – once you have selected your category – pay close attention to the style & submission guide for each directory (and adjust your description accordingly).

I am going to treat submission to Yahoo! as a paid inclusion (and cover it in the next part of the guide) as, in my experience, it is very hard to get listed in Yahoo! Directory on the basic submission. That leaves Looksmart and DMOZ as the other two big ones.

DMOZ is run entirely by volunteers and each site is reviewed by hand in a process which can take many months. Start by submitting your site. Then wait three months before sending a polite chasing email to the category editor. If you hear nothing after a further three months, send an escalation email to the category editor above your category. If, after a further three months you have had no response, ask for assistance in the Open Directory Public Forum ( then (shortly afterwards) escalate to DMOZ senior staff.

Looksmart works in a similar way (although you make your submissions via and should generally find you get a quicker answer. Since MSN stopped using Looksmart directory results, this directory has become slightly less critical (but alliances can change quickly in SEO, so I would still recommend giving this some attention).

An excellent list of more minor directories (that are still SEO -friendly) can be found at Info Vilesilencer. Do work your way through this list if you have the time (as this is still time much better spent than chasing reciprocal inks).

One final point. Do not keep re-submitting to (for example) DMOZ, in the hope you will get a faster turnaround. You will not. Each time you submit, it is like going to the back of the queue. If you really overdo it, you may simply be ignored as a spammer. Patience is a virtue here!

(d) Search Engine Submission

Do not use search engine submission software! Many of them do not work properly (as their links are out of date) and some search engines will actively block or blacklist such submissions. Google, in their Guide for Webmasters, say “don’t use unauthorized computer programs to submit pages, check rankings, etc. Such programs consume computing resources and violate our terms of service. Google does not recommend the use of products such as WebPosition Gold(TM) that send automatic or programmatic queries to Google”.

My advice is simply to do a search on Google for the words “submit URL”, “submit site” and “add to listing” in turn and work your way slowly through the top 100 results. Use the same description you used for the directory submissions.

There are so many search engines, you could well spend a few happy weekends on this activity alone. My advice is to check the PageRank of each engine’s homepage before bothering to submit. Anything less than PR4 is not worth the hassle.

(e) Forum Participation

Now we get onto some of the most interesting little areas of free site promotion. I suggest you research some areas of interest related to your site and identify at least two forums you can join through a search on Google (select from the top 10 results only, where pagerank of the forum homepage is PR5 or better). Doug identifies and signs up. You’ll remember from his proposition that a key customer segment for him is the DIY door fitter.

Create a signature file for your posting template that includes the URL of your site. Then begin posting relevant items of genuine assistance to your audience. As you will see later, Doug has established a blog on his site to help customers with their common door DIY questions. It is his blog to which Doug links in his signature file and he posts approximately two entries a week over his Sunday coffee.

Do not abuse the forums! Enter into them with genuine enthusiasm and never promote your site in the body of your postings. Let you competence and skill speak for you and you’ll find your postings (and therefore your signature file link) showing up in search engine results and attracting highly targeted click-throughs from forum members.

(f) Article Submission

Now you are going to discover the single best free way to promote your site; article submission. Research (like you did for forums) a few article repositories with categories related to your website (PR5 or above only please). I can recommend looking at: eZinearticles, Ideamarketers, articlesfactory, articlecity, wwio, and netterweb just to get you started. You should also look at Yahoo! groups that collect and distribute free articles to their members. For example, I use aabusiness, aainet, Free-Content and article_announce.

Doug submits four articles to five different sites in their DIY category. Each article contains one (topical and keyword-rich-anchor-text) link to his site in the main body of the article and a link to his site and blog in the resource box (“about the author”) at the bottom of the article. All the articles are optimized for his keywords and keyword chains.

He is amazed to find (i) that he gets a lot of direct, high quality traffic from these sites, (ii) that his articles appear near the top of search results on some of his three-word keyword chains and (iii) that this seems to help him acquire PageRank more quickly than any of the other free methods he has used. He is not alone in discovering this – and now you too are in possession of this key nugget.

(g) Newsletters and eZines

Building on the previous point, Doug manages to get some of his articles accepted for publication in popular web DIY newsletters. He also creates his own monthly email newsletter that customers can sign up for on his site. This helps him to build a mailing list of high-value customers and to build an ongoing relationship with them. He finds, over time, that he gets a lot of repeat business this way (peppering his newsletter with regular special offers). Please do copy Doug. It doesn’t take an awful lot of effort to do this and it always pays off better than an endless focus on reciprocal link-building.

(h) Blogs and RSS

There is a lot of hype out there about blogs. Much of the hype is well-deserved. Blogs are transforming areas of politics, the media and social affairs. They are also attractive to search engines, as frequently refreshed and dense content that tends to be naturally optimized for search. A blog, put simply, is “an online journal of content and Web links, sorted in chronological order, with the most recent at the top”. The slang term “Blog” was coined, to avoid confusion with web server log files.

Doug signs up at Google’s Blogger and selects to host his “DIY Doors” blog on his own servers. Based on his own experience of his customers’ most frequently asked questions, he builds a series of postings addressing them. Several of these postings are the very same text he used in his article submissions. He also opts to host an ATOM feed of his postings as well as an RSS 2.0 format feed, which he creates from the ATOM feed, using Feedburner.

He submits his blog to specialist search engines Bloglines, Blogdex, Blogwise, Blogstreet, Eatonweb amongst others. He also adds his RSS feed to myYahoo,, Technorati, and Feedster. He then uses Ping-o-matic to tell the engines when he has updated his blog.

The blog becomes the online equivalent of Doug’s high street advice service to local DIYers. With every hardware sale online, he sends an invoice with links to his blog, so that customers get an after-sales service superior to those of his competitors. Customers can also post questions to him by email using an online form on his site. He then answers those questions on the blog. Occasionally customers comment on his responses, adding tips of their own.

Doug is delighted with this and sees the whole blog as a real differentiator for him in the marketplace. In time, the major search engines come to share his view (and his blog ranks higher in the end than the main site).

Over time, he finds that his blog has built up quite a following and one or two other webmasters start to syndicate his RSS feed on their DIY sites. This all becomes a very welcome source of targeted traffic (as well as being a fair bit of fun).

(i) Outbound Links

You’ll remember earlier, I pointed out that PageRank works in reverse, with credit given or deducted for the quality of your outbound links. In his blog, Doug adds in the sidebar four links to the top DIY sites on the web (each with a PR7 or better). You should do the same, using keyword-rich anchor text, followed by the official name of the site. As an example from Doug’s site:

DIY door kits from the DIY Network

Don’t overdo outbound links and try to find complementary sites rather than direct competitors, or you will simply end up sending traffic off your site. Never put outbound links on sites where your customers order or pay for their goods!

(j) Favourites, Feedback and Referral

Don’t neglect the simple things on your web pages. Add a feedback form, so customers can give you ideas on how to improve the site. Give them a mailto: link they can use to send an email to a friend (ie. recommending their site to you) and use some javascript to create an “add to favourites” link, so they can more easily bookmark your site. All this will help.

Next we turn to the paid promotion (marketing) of your site…

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SEO Expert Guide – Page Optimization (part 5/10)

SEO Expert Guide – Paid Site Promotion (Marketing) (part 7/10)

Advantages Of Internet Marketing – E-Commerce Web Solutions

No Geographical Boundaries: The Internet offers a great platform for marketers looking to reach a wide audience. Because the Internet doesn’t have geographical boundaries, consumers from all over the world can access your products and services without the need to interact physically. Thus, in addition to marketing and doing business locally, many businesses even small ones, can easily reach the overseas markets.

Cost Savings: Internet marketing has made doing business more cost effective. Unlike traditional marketing that requires large budgets yet reaches only a few people, Internet marketing reaches a larger audience at a lower cost.

Ongoing Business: Internet marketing means that you can reach your target audience twenty-four hours, seven days a week. Customers can access your company e-commerce websites, view and purchase products anytime regardless of the time differences. This ongoing access places online business at a greater advantage compared to a solely brick-and-mortar business.

Display Of Detailed Information: Unlike traditional marketing, Internet Marketing enables marketers to offer all the information their target audience may require to make a purchasing decision. Websites offer a dynamic platform for businesses to build trust with customers who can easily access information and make inquiries about products and services that interest them.

Tapping Into New Markets: Sometimes marketers can leave out a certain market segment, because they are simply unaware of this segment. However, Internet Marketing makes it possible for this untapped market to find the business and the products it is offering, by simply searching online.

Access To More Tools: Internet Marketing is very dynamic. Marketers have access to a myriad of tools to market an e-commerce website along with the product offering. These tools, such as mobile applications and social media, make it possible for marketers to reach out to their audience, engage with them, find out what their interests are and tailor their products to the needs of their customers. It is also much easier and cheaper now for Internet marketers to conduct research, analyze their markets and monitor their progress.

Worldwide User Demographics

According to Internet World Stats, there were 2.3 billion web users worldwide by the first quarter of 2012. China hosts the largest number of Internet users with more than 513 million users. Internet World Stats also shows that Iceland has the highest Internet penetration with up to 98% of its population using the Internet.

Globally, Internet penetration rates have increased by up to 445% since the start of the millennium. This has allowed many businesses to reach a global audience.

Google remains the most dominant search engine globally even though some local search engines in Asia, Russia and Latin America continue to gain traction.

Wondering If There is a Legit Part Time Home Based Business?

When you are wondering if there is a legit part time home based business, this is a very hot topic on and offline. There are times that you may be thinking you will be looking for a long time, but really there are numerous legit part time home based business options. The few things that you will need to do is find one that not only fits your schedule but something that you will enjoy.A Way To Generate a Few IdeasThere are tons of social network sites and forums that will help you understand and figure out of a specific part time home based business is suitable for your needs. These sites not only offer people that are currently part of a specific business opportunity but offer you tips and tricks on how to complete different things to make your life simpler as a business owner.You do need to use some common sense though in having conversations with people and their idea of “best ways to make money online”. Everyone is entitled to their opinion and it doesn’t make it right or wrong, but you need to understand the information given to you.You Make Need To Try a FewThere will be times that no matter how much information you obtain and digest; sometimes the best course is to jump right in and see how it can benefit you. When you look into a legit part time home based business you may just find one that makes you feel unstoppable and it becomes a easy way to make money online for you. There may be a business you try and decide you don’t like it but know someone that would be awesome at it, for example “blogging”. Not everyone likes to blog but some people do it every single day for most of the day and become very profitable at blogging.Talk To Others You KnowDo you have the ability to talk to other people that have a home based business, what do they or do they not like about their home based business? I will be the first to tell you that there is not a “perfect” part time home based business or full time in that case. Talk to others about the business you are looking to start and what if any affiliates you make be looking to partner with, this will hopefully give you some valuable feedback.If some opportunity gives you an ill feeling and you just can’t feel good about doing it, no matter the compensation – you will not be successful. When you find something you enjoy and it makes you feel good and you start making money online, this is what it is all about.

10 Effective Small Home Based Business Ideas for Startup Small Business Owners

It is always desirable by many of us to establish a home-based business where we can work from the comfort of our home and can earn a handsome residual income. Therefore, we have listed here ten effective home based business ideas for starting up a home-based small business. Why do we say these “effective small home based business ideas”? Because these are all ideas which are tested and we actually made money through these ideas at one time or another.1- Develop a Niche Affiliate Site
A niche website is a small website that only focuses a single segment of market. There are hundreds of thousands of niche-websites on the web. You can search for a segment of your interest or expertise and then build a catchy website with high-quality content. Choose the products based on high turnover and handsome commissions for affiliate sales on your website. Promote your site for targeted traffic and then track results.2 – Get paid by Online Paid Surveys
Online paid surveys are a popular and easy way of generating a residual income stream for you and your family. Every global company is spending a lot on the market research and consumer behavior patterns. They hire survey firms to conduct market research for their existing and upcoming products and services and pay generously for views of the people. So it is easy to sort down reliable survey companies and filling out surveys to get a comfortable way of earning from home.3 – Selling on Craigslist & eBay:
Craigslist is an online garage sale site. It is free to place your sale offers on the craigslist, and sometimes you don’t even need to be worried about shipping and packaging; people come to your home and pick up the items they bought from you. You can sell anything at craigslist or eBay from the old garage items to your small handmade unique items. You can find a clientele for almost anything on these sites and can earn money for you and your family.4 – Design a website:
If you are running your own website or blog, then you will be familiar with the WordPress and can learn how to create websites by using readily available WordPress themes and how to fix them. You can offer these services to other peoples by learning some customizations like changing color schemes, designing simple logs and banners, make small changes in the layout, etc. In this way, you can easily create and sell unique websites for others and can earn residual income.5 – Earn Money as a Virtual Worker
You can sign up websites like to offer your services to the individuals and small businesses. has different categories like content writing and social media. You can earn money by completing small tasks like writing a review of a product, posting comments to the blog posts and being fan of a Facebook page, etc.6 – Earn through Ads on Your Website or Blog:
If you are running a website or blog which has a reasonable amount of daily visitors, then you can earn through placing ads on your websites. Quality content and high-traffic site can give you a handsome stream of advertisement earnings through CPC and CPM campaigns. In these ads, you will be paid for click or impression of the ad placed on your website. You can place any good ad network like Google AdSense for ad campaigns can enjoy extra money through advertisements.7 – Domain Name Speculation:
Speculating and registering domain is a popular and easy way to earn money online. It involves creativity and thoughtfulness of the person. People find and register domain names, which appear valuable and wait for the time when someone approaches them to sell that domain name in the future. Such domains are parked on pages, which clearly indicate that these domains are for sale and also mention the contact details of the owner. Meanwhile, these owners place catchy advertisements on parking pages and earn advertisement money.8 – Be a Freelancer:
If you have some expertise in graphics design, programming, writing, marketing research, data entry or any other simple administrative work, then you can offer your services through freelancing websites like and These sites offer a fantastic platform for the people who want to work online. Simply join any of the reputable freelancing website, offer your services in any given category and start earning without spending a penny from your own pocket.9 – Offer Transcription Services:
Transcription service is the procedure of creating text form of data from recorded voice and conference calls. If you have extra ordinary listening and writing skills, then you can offer your transcription services on the web and can earn a handsome amount based upon your work.10 – CPA Marketing:
Cost per Action marketing means getting paid when a specific action is performed through your referral link. The referring money can be from $1 to $25 depending upon the type of action performed. This is a quick way to generate cash by referring people. It is highly recommended to use trust worth websites after proper research.

6 Simple Online Success Skills For Your Home Based Business

If you are overwhelmed or intimidated by using the internet to generate leads for your home based business, you’re not alone.Like most people over 40, I started out knowing only some computer basics like email and surfing. But when it came to tackling Twitter, Facebook, Squidoo etc., I didn’t have a clue, and honestly thought “who needs it?”. It’s just too complicated.Many home based business opportunities have you start out by approaching friends and family (also called your ‘warm list’). Mine was no different. Of course I thought everyone I knew would immediately say “WOW this is AWESOME, how do I join?” As many home based business owners can identify with, this wasn’t exactly the way it happened.In the course of a month I’d gone through my entire warm market list, with most of my friends having absolutely no interest in what I was doing. I was determined not to be one of the 97% of home based business start ups that crash and burn. I learned the difference between those 97% and the 3% who soar to success is those ‘complicated’ things like Facebook, Twitter, Squidoo, etc. So despite my initial reservations, I had to learn the how-to’s of internet marketing and lead generation. And I did.Here’s the good news: if I can learn this stuff, so can you. The skills needed to generate leads for your home based business aren’t as difficult as you might think. Actually, online success comes down to mastering these few (offline) basics:Skill #1: ResearchThis may sound intimidating, but it’s not. Have you ever researched airline fares? Or searched for a recipe online? Well it’s really not much more difficult than that. The key is knowing where and how to do this research. Once you know how it’s really a snap. This becomes the basis for your second skill.Skill # 2: WritingBut not the kind that gets you an A in English class! The skill here is more like speaking and having a conversation. If you can write 300-700 word articles on a topic that provides helpful information (typically related to your home based business) you’re golden. This may take a little time, but you can get up and running quickly with the right guidance.Skill # 3: PatienceWhen you first look at networking sites like Twitter and Facebook, if you’re over 40, you’ll be out of your comfort zone. These sites use weird words and look overwhelmingly complex. The truth is, once someone takes the time to show you the basics, these sites are pretty easy to use. The key is having patience. Learn them one at a time, and then, once you understand how they work, use the ones you like most and get the best results.Skill #4: PersistenceRome wasn’t built in a day. It was built brick by brick. Each new skill is like learning a new brick-laying technique. You don’t become a master craftsman overnight. It takes practice, patience and persistence. Don’t expect to learn everything right away. Stay with it, and you will be richly rewarded.Skill #5: Discipline Discipline is your cornerstone skill. When marketing online, consistency is key. An hour or two implementing basic skills every day will pay off far more than putting in 80 hours in the first few weeks and then slacking off because you haven’t seen results. As amazing as the internet is, it takes a while to build a reputation so people get to know, like and trust you enough to do business with you.Skill #6: Finding a qualified mentorIn business and in life, one of the key factors that determine where you go and how fast you get there is your ability partner with the right people. Especially when you are talking about learning new skills and trying to navigate an environment that is flooded with information (some good, most pretty bad), the right mentor can literally save years of pain, frustration and ultimately failure. A qualified mentor will steer you in the direction of the best business and system for you.Definitely keep these six critical skills in mind when developing a successful online business at home. If you are looking to start a home based business (or you’ve stalled in an existing one) choose wisely and make sure you tap into a training program and system that walks you through each aspect of internet marketing for home based businesses step-by-step. Once you master these skills, you’re on your way to financial independence and success!

Your Home Based Business Plan

To get started with your home based business, the first requirement to activate your status is to prepare a comprehensive business plan. To encourage people to invest in your business; this is the first and foremost requirement. In fact, many investors like bankers, angel investors, venture capitalist can help you start your business and provide fund, if only you possess a good plan.To create your business plan, you don’t need any writer to develop it. All you need to keep in mind is that the plan should be realistic and focused to the subject. Additionally, you will also have to show them that you are 100% capable of accomplishing the target because you have the required talent, tools, system, workforce etc, and all the necessary arrangements in place. This particular document is not a one-time requirement to either start or expand a business, in fact you will often have to refer to it and also update it from time to time.Do you require a plan for business?
The answer to this question is no. Not all home based business entrepreneurs develop business plans. However, if you are seeking financial help from investors then you surely need a business plan to pave the road to success.However, you don’t need to produce the business plan always. For instance, if you approach a venture capitalist then you obviously need a business plan. On the other hand, if you approach a banker for loan to start your home based business, then production of the business plan is a must. Now, if you apply for a loan to expand an already established business, then the banker might skip the business plan.How to write a plan for home based business?
Before I answer this question let me explain the contents of a business plan. Your business plan should clearly state that the business has the capacity to generate enough returns for not only clearing the debts and loans but also covering the general business expenses. The plan should not be too long but a very concise write-up, just enough to put forward your ideas and convey the message across the table.1. The first part will be an “Executive Summary” that will highlight your business plan. Your writing should be convincing and worth considering, which should not be more than two pages.2. Second part is called the “Company Summary”. As the name implies, it is all about your company. In this area you will have to mention the company’s background history, ownership details and everything about the company.3. In the third section, mention about your “Products and or Services”. Here you are supposed to describe your products and or services. Moreover, you will also need to give the distinguishing features of your products or services. In other words, highlight the points that will make people consider your products and or services to be helpful.4. The fourth part will be about the current “Market Analysis”. In this section you will have to state the current market condition of your product and or services.5. The fifth part will deal with your “Strategy and Implementation”. It’s more like how you are planning to sell your product and or services in order to accomplish your targets and generate revenue.6. The sixth point is all about “Management Summary”.7. Though this is the last point but I think it is the most important one. You will have to write the “Financial Plan”. This deals with all money related matters like profits, sales, cash flow etc.These are also applicable for Internet home based business, if you need funding.

Harmonization of Traditional and New Accounting Theory

The Introduction

Accounting theory has gone through rapid changes and innovations in recent years. These changes have been categorized as new accounting theory. These innovations and new theories go against and differ from the traditional theory of accounting. There are gaps in the way that varying companies account for their finances. Harmonization of the two approaches will bring greater stability to commerce.

Traditional Approaches

According to Ahmed (2000) “Accounting history is the study of evolution in accounting thought, practices and institutions in response to changes in the environment and societal needs.” An older style of accounting is reactive to past experiences giving us reasons for what is now current. These are the 5 methods that have made up much of the traditional Theory.

Non-theoretical Approaches

According to Accounting Theory Formulation as a tool for enhancing international harmonization of accounting standards, “The non-theoretical approaches to accounting are the pragmatic (or practical) approach and an authoritarian approach.” These approaches are made to use known sciences to perform the given task. The heart of this theory is based upon the ideal that accounting theory must be on the terms of a final use in financial reports. This entails that any other theories without these characteristics are deemed bad.

Deductive Approach

Deductive approach is the attempt to find what “ought to be”. According to Porwal (2001) the four steps to using the deductive approach are

• Specifying the objectives of financial statements
• Selecting the “postulates” of accounting
• Deriving the “principles” of accounting
• Developing the “techniques” of accounting

Ethical Approach

The ethical approach is one that puts the equality of truth and transparency of the accounting framework above all else for all parties included. This means that accounting approaches may not be decided or implied to help a certain party but must be unbiased. This approach also is centered around fairness which maintains that business have acted ethical and in good faith.

Sociological Approach

The sociological approach focuses on sociological effects that accounting has. This concerns itself of the general wellbeing of the public; as well as the equality that accounting should bring to the world. In order for this to work it is imperative that “established social values” are used when implementing accounting theory.

Economic approach

The economic Approach to accounting theory differs from sociological and the ethical approaches because it is based upon the general economic wellbeing. This means that the choices will be made upon the overall goal that a nation has for its economy. This focuses much less on individual equality and mostly upon factors of macroeconomics.

New Approaches

New approaches to accounting are evolving and being remolded in recent years and are essential to present day accounting. All parties in the accounting world have not yet accepted the new Theory. These five Approaches are the makings of new theory.

Counseling Clients

A major aspect of accounting theory is counseling clients. Accountants must be able to coach their clients to make better decisions in their future when making changes to their company. For example, according to Accounting Theory 3E by LS Porwal, ” A client contemplating making and accounting change that will increase its reported income in purpose of supporting its stock prices should be informed that such tactics do not fool the market.” This shows the part that accountants play in advising the future actions companies will take to ensure their finances.

Behavioral Approach

While generally excluded from traditional accounting process, the behavioral approach is based upon the opinions and reactions of the people. The meaning of this is try to quantify the reaction that people along with the users of the financial statements will have.

Human Information Processing Approach

Human Information Processing Approach is based on processing model inputs, process, and output. These three tools allow accounting methods to be utilized in other general real world problems.

Predictive Approach

According to the Concepts Statements NO.2 of FASB, the predictive value is an ingredient of relevance, a primary quality of financial reporting. This approach is an evaluation of the different options and the choice between the differing choices

Natural Supplements to Grow Taller Review – Herbal Facts and Marketer’s Claims Review

Why do many consumers take dietary supplements to grow taller? The reasons are varied-many times medically valid, sometimes not. In low or appropriate dosages, some supplements offer health benefits under some circumstances. Some people use supplements with good intention: perhaps in search of protection from or a remedy for health problems such as depression, aging skin, cancer, or arthritis. Still others seek added benefits: perhaps better athletic performance or sexual prowess. Too often, supplement use is based on scientifically unfounded marketing promises. But, some people still claim to undeniable scientific proofs.

It would be great, but boosting your nutrient intake won’t cause your cells to produce extra energy or more brain power. Only three nutrients carbohydrates, fats, and proteins supply energy or calories to grow taller. Vitamins don’t. Although B vitamins do help body cells produce energy from the three energy nutrients, they don’t produce energy themselves. Many powerful drugs and toxic chemicals are plant-based. Varieties of mushrooms can be classified as “culinary delicious” or “deadly dangerous.” In the same vein, herbal supplements should be used with caution! Any healthy natural supplements to grow taller, without proper doctor acknowledgement and governement authority approbation sounds really fishy to me.

Athletes and other physically active people need about the same amount of nutrients as others do to grow taller just more energy, or calories, for the increased demands of exercise. The extra amount of food that active people eat supplies the very small amount of extra vitamins needed to grow taller and have more energy production, too.

Although protein needs are somewhat higher for some athletes, especially for those in strength-training sports, food can easily provide the extra. On another note, physical activity, not extra amino acids (protein), builds muscle. For more on nutrition for athletes and ergogenic aids.

Dietary supplements to grow taller won’t protect you from the harmful effects of smoking or alcohol abuse. Here’s the real scoop: Smoking does increase the body’s need for vitamin C; drinking excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages can interfere with the body’s use of most nutrients. If soil can grow crops, the food produced is nutritious. When soil lacks minerals, plants don’t grow properly and may not produce their potential yield. Growing area does affect a food’s iodine and selenium contents.

Supplements won’t give you instant grow taller results, it would take at least a 2-3 months training for instance. For vitamins and minerals to do their work, they need several hours or several days to interact and do their work in your body. For any benefits from other dietary supplements to grow taller, you likely need to take them even longer. Supplements to grow taller are easy to spot. By law, they must be labeled “dietary supplements.” About eighty thousand dietary supplements are marketed in the United States with multivitamin/mineral supplements being the biggest product category-and with an average of 500 new products launched each year. They’re sold in many forms-for example, tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, liquids, powders, and bars.

Do you consume a varied, balanced diet to grow taller? With some exceptions, supplements usually aren’t necessary. If you’re healthy and if you’re able and willing to eat a balanced, varied diet. You probably can get the vitamins and minerals you need from smart food choices. According to national studies, most Americans have enough healthful foods available to do that, yet they may not. Under some circumstances, vitamin/mineral supplements offer benefits and are advised; like those for growing taller.

A woman with heavy menstrual bleeding? You may need an iron supplement to replace iron from blood loss. To enhance absorption, take iron supplements with water or juice on an empty stomach. If nausea or constipation are problems, take iron supplements with food. Absorption may be decreased by as much as 50 percent when taken with a meal or a snack. A woman who’s pregnant or breast-feeding? You need more of some nutrients, especially folate and iron-and perhaps calcium if you don’t consume enough calcium-rich foods. Check the label’s Supplement Facts to make sure you get enough for a healthy pregnancy. Ask about a prenatal vitamin/mineral supplement.

Someone unable or unwilling to regularly consume a healthful diet to grow taller? You likely need a dietary supplement to fill in the nutrient gaps. However, eating smarter would be better if you don’t have food-related health problems! Take a supplement with the advice of a doctor or a registered dietitian. For example, pre-menopausal women who don’t consume enough calcium to grow taller and stronger bones from food likely need a calcium supplement-unless they’re willing to improve their diet. Some babies after age six months, children, and teens may need a fluoride supplement to grow taller and perhaps iron or vitamin D.

If you are not able to meet your calcium and vitamin D recommendations with foods to grow taller, you may need calcium or vitamin D supplements to grow taller. Ask a dietitian or your doctor about the right dosage and type. And enhance their absorption by taking them with food. Only food can provide the mixture of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, and other substances for a health quality that can’t be duplicated with dietary supplements to grow taller alone. Fortunately for most Americans growing taller, there’s plenty of quality, quantity, and variety in the food marketplace.

Enjoy plenty of calcium and vitamin D-rich foods. They provide more for bone health calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and overall health than supplements do. And a varied, well-balanced eating plan offers other nutrients that appear to promote bone density, including magnesium, potassium, and vitamin K

Supplements to grow taller carry labeling, showing the amounts of vitamins and minerals in a single dosage. If you already eat a healthful diet, you probably don’t need any more than a low-dose supplement. Taking a multivitamin/mineral supplement, with no more than 100 percent of the Daily Values (DVs) as a safety net, is generally considered safe. Most nutrient supplements are produced in low dosages.

Supplements with water-soluble vitamins or minerals can be risky if taken in excess, over time. For example, taking extra vitamin B6 has been suggested to help relieve premenstrual tension. Yet there’s limited evidence to support large vitamin B6 doses for relief of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Many women have viewed large vitamin B6 doses as harmless, since they are water-soluble. Instead, they may cause irreversible nerve damage when taken in very large doses above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): 500 to 5,000 mg vitamin B6 per day.

That said, can you overdose on vitamins or minerals naturally as you grow taller with food? That’s highly unlikely. As we mentioned, taking very high doses of dietary supplements or taking too many, too often can be dangerous. The vitamin and mineral content of food is much more balanced fortunately. In amounts normally consumed, even if you enjoy extra helpings, you won’t consume toxic levels of nutrients. So eat a variety of foods-and enjoy! Note: Nutrient amounts to grow taller can add up if you consume a lot of highly fortified foods.

You may take dietary supplements to grow taller for potential health benefits. It’s not uncommon for people diagnosed with cancer, AIDS, or other life-threatening health problems, who are desperate for a cure, to put their hopes and healthcare dollars in alternative treatments, including dietary supplements. However, supplements may offer a false sense of security-and a serious problem if you neglect well-proven approaches to health or delay medical attention.

Drink plenty of fluids with calcium supplements to avoid constipation. The lactose and vitamin D in the milk help to enhance calcium absorption. If you don’t drink milk and want an alternative to calcium pills, consider calcium-fortified juice or soy beverage. One cup of calcium-fortified juice or soy beverage can contain about 300 milligrams of calcium, the same amount as in a cup of milk, and provides vitamin C, folate, and other nutrients. Still, you need a vitamin D source to aid absorption; some calcium-fortified juices and soy beverages are also fortified with vitamin D.

Calcium supplements help to protect against osteoporosis (brittle-bone disease) It can’t make up for your lifestyle choices or poor health habits. Regular weight-bearing physical activity is important to grow taller and obtain healthy bones. For healthy bones, avoid smoking, too.

Vitamin nasal sprays or patches are effective to grow taller? No research evidence says so, even though they’re promoted for faster, more efficient absorption. In fact, they may not be absorbed at all. Here’s the reality check: Fat-soluble vitamins need fat from food to aid absorption. Vitamin C in your intestine aids iron absorption-a problem if vitamin C comes from a spray. Vitamin B12 binds with intrinsic factor made in the stomach during digestion. That cannot happen with a spray or a patch! So that means all the place that try to claim that you could grow taller with that are just scam.

Indeed, herbals and other botanicals have known medicinal qualities helping us grow taller; 30 percent of today’s drugs come from plants. Yet, herbals and other botanical supplements also are sold as dietary supplements rather than regulated as drugs. Like many plant-derived pharmaceuticals, these supplements can offer both positive health benefits and harmful side effects.

On the up side, enough scientific evidence has been collected on a handful of botanical supplements to support their limited use. For example, under a doctor’s guidance, gingko biloba may be used to help treat the symptoms of age-related memory loss and dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease); green tea extract may help reduce cancer risk. A growing body of research evidence is being gathered about their safety and effectiveness, as well as their limitations and dangers.

On the down side, like other supplements to grow taller, herbal and other botanical supplements are regulated differently from pharmaceuticals, which are meant to cure or prevent disease. You aren’t as protected from misleading claims as you might think. When you think about the quality and effectiveness of these grow taller methods; you can see that the marketer’s are absolutely in control of the quality…

According to current law and regulations, herbal and botanical remedies to grow taller and other dietary supplements to grow taller can enter the marketplace without FDA approval. The burden is on the FDA to remove a dangerous dietary supplements to grow taller from the marketplace. Currently dosages of herbal remedies aren’t standardized, so dosages vary among products. Some are even copies of the actual real-product that is made by legitimate herbal company; they put the same product name change what is inside and put the same label. Be very careful, you can look up grow taller 4 smarts free scam alerts to be ahead of scammers.

Although packaging claims can’t say that a supplement to grow taller cures or prevents disease, it may carry claims for its purported health role. Many claims have only limited scientific evidence. Are herbal supplements or botanicals are safe during pregnancy and nursing? There’s not enough scientific evidence yet to recommend safe levels for herbal supplements for pregnant or nursing moms. However, some are known to be harmful to a baby.

How to Detect Drug Abusing Teenagers

The effects of substance abuse in teens are not only individual; they can also be seen on the society. They may face problems at school or college and may involve in criminal activities. It is therefore very important to detect drug abusing teenagers. Drug testing should be conducted on a regular basis at schools and homes to identify and save them from harmful drugs of abuse.

Signs of drug abuse
Identifying certain signs helps you to detect if the kid is addicted to the drugs. Some of the common physical and emotional signs are:

• Change in sleep patterns
• Poor motor coordination
• Poor hygiene and illness including nausea and excessive sweating
• Irregular heartbeat
• Impaired thinking
• Mood swings
• Hyperactivity or overtired
• Depression

Drug abusing teens lose their interest in family activities, often abuse verbally and physically at home or school, and disrespect the family or school. In addition, abrupt decrease in grades, memory and attention loss, and lack of interest and concentration on studies are some of the signs at school. The moment you observe any of the above mentioned signs, you need to immediately check if the kid is abusing drugs. Drug testing is one of the safest and easiest ways to detect the drug abuse among teens.

Types of drug tests
There are different types of methods to detect the teens who are using drugs. Some of the common ones are urine, saliva, hair, and blood tests.

Urine drug test
Of all the types, urine testing is used most commonly as it is inexpensive method used to detect a drug user. You can use urine test kits at home or school to check if the child is addicted to illegal drugs. Quick and accurate results are obtained by these test kits.

Saliva drug test
It is more advantageous as it is relatively non-intrusive. Saliva from the mouth is taken through a swab and is checked for the presence of drugs. Most recent drug abuse can be detected by saliva tests. Conducting saliva test is very easy and also provides accurate and immediate results.

Hair drug test
This method is also non-intrusive. A hair sample of 1.5 inches in length is enough for conducting the test. Drug or its metabolites deposited at the hair shaft are detected by hair tests. You can get very reliable and accurate results by this method.

Blood drug test
You can also use a blood sample of the teen to detect illegal drug usage. It is however expensive and you need to approach laboratory as you cannot conduct it at your home.

Detection periods
The detection period depends on the method of test conducted. These detection periods vary from the type, dosage, and frequency of drug used.

Urine drug test can detect drug or its metabolites for 30 days in frequent users and for 2-3 days in occasional users. The test detects Cocaine for 4-5 days, Heroin for 2-4 days, Methamphetamine for 3-5 days, PCP for 3-7 days, and Codeine for 2-4 days.

A saliva test is mostly used to detect recent drug usage. However, it can also detect drugs consumed 3 days back. Of all the methods, hair drug test has a longer detection period. It detects illegal drug consumption for about 90 days.

What if results are positive?
Once the kid is tested positive by drug test kit, talk to him/her about the result. You can get a confirmatory result through laboratory tests. Communicate with him regularly regarding the effects of drug abuse. Ask him to leave companions or friends who are habituated to drugs. If necessary, send him/her to substance abuse treatment program.

Importance of intervention
Detection and intervention of drug abuse at primitive stages can prevent further damage. Drug intervention is an attempt made by family members or school authorities to help the teen get out of drug abuse or addiction. The main objective of intervention is to make the teen understand the physical and mental destruction caused by drug abuse. If you are not able to speak to the kid on this, you can take help of your friends or relatives. You can also consult specialists who counsel drug abusers and help them get back to their normal life.

Parents and school authorities should always keep an eye on the behavior and activities of the teens. Necessary measures have to be taken in order to prevent them from taking drugs.

Prevent Teen Drug Abuse Using Drug Testing Kits at Home

Teen drug abuse became a serious health problem in United States. It is hurting the healthcare system, burdening the economy, and causing millions of deaths every year. Of the many causes that promote drug abuse among teens, lack of parental supervision is a major one. Teens should be guarded properly by their parents as they are still immature.

Since, early intervention leads to effective prevention of this unhealthy habit, parents should identify drug abusing habits in teens and take preventive measures. Parents can take help of home drug testing kits which are effective and easy to use.

In this article, we will discuss about teens and their vulnerability to drug abuse; how to identify teen drug abuse and how important are drug testing programs at home to prevent teen drug abuse.

Teens – vulnerable to drugs abuse: Many scientific studies have already proved that teenagers are more prone to risk taking and are vulnerable to drug abuse when compared to adults. This typical behavior of teens during adolescence is because of the major changes in parts of the brain that are responsible for functions such as self-control, judgment, planning, organization, and emotions. Since teen brains are not yet fully developed, they cannot take proper decisions and fall victims to unhealthy habits like drug and alcohol abuse.

Signs and symptoms of drug abuse: The primary step towards prevention of drug abuse in teens is to identify their unhealthy habits. Prominent changes, both in their behavior and in physical appearance can be noticed even at the early stages of abuse. Following are the warning signs:

Physical and emotional changes:
• Red eyes
• Finding difficulty to speak
• Sudden fall or rise in weight
• Lack of hygiene and showing less interest in personal grooming
• Aggression and arrogance
• Depression and irritation

Social and behavioral changes:
• Dissociation from old friends and acquiring new social group
• Sudden anger or depression
• Poor attendance and academics at school
• Spending time lonely
• Abnormal odor in breath or clothing
• Pipes, needles and other suspicious substances in their room

Importance of home drug test kits: The moment you see the signs that indicate drug abuse in your teen, it is the time to confirm drug abusing habits using reliable methods. They are useful devices for the parents to confirm these unhealthy habits in teens. They are simple, easy to use, provide instant and accurate results, cost-effective and above all ensure privacy. Some multi-panel drug testing kits can detect multiple drugs of abuse at a shot.

Best drug test methods to implement: When it comes to home drug testing, urine and saliva tests are considered to be the best methods. There are two other methods – blood and hair tests also, but they need special devices and expert supervision, hence are not recommended for home testing.

Urine test can detect the drugs in your teen’s system up to three days after use. If you believe that your teen has taken drugs during the last few days, then this method is effective in offering accurate results. However, it is necessary to check that your teen is not providing fake urine sample which can lead to false results.

Saliva drug testing is an ideal drug test if you suspect that your teen abused drugs on that particular day. These kits can detect drug use up to 48 hours.

Need for random drug testing: If you are conducting drug tests on your teens at regular intervals, following a regular pattern, your teen may notice the pattern and either try to manipulate the sample before the test or stop abusing drugs few days before the test. Hence, practicing random drug tests is always an ideal way to identify the drug use which effectively helps in detecting the drug abuse among your teens. Random testing makes teens say ‘NO’ to drugs as they know that you can conduct drug testing any time at home.

Home drug testing kits can be considered as effective solutions in controlling and preventing drug abuse in your teens. So, make sure that you have some of them at home to test your teen to help him stay away from drugs.